IGS’19 – Sea Ice at the Interface

IGS co-hosts a sea ice symposium every 5 years. The Centre for Earth Observation (University of Manitoba) is excited to be hosting the first to be held in Canada.

 

Confirmed Sessions

Online registration opens April 10, 2019

Confirmed List of IGS 2019 Sessions

1: The role of atmospheric dynamics in a changing sea ice cover.

Chairs:  Julienne Stroeve, University of Manitoba, Canada / University College London, UK / NSIDC, USA; Paul Kushner, University of Toronto, Canada; Jennifer Lukovich, University of Manitoba, Canada

A key theme in recent observations and analyses is the increased importance of local and regional dynamical processes in accelerating Arctic sea ice change, and implications for non-local processes and prediction. Previous studies have explored connections between tropospheric and stratospheric dynamics and sea ice variability and extent. Also of interest are the relative contributions of sea ice loss and greenhouse gases (GHGs) to regional changes in atmospheric circulation. This session explores connections between changes in atmospheric circulation and changes in sea ice cover in the context of a changing climate. The objectives are i) explore recent advances in the current state of knowledge on the linkages of atmospheric circulation and dynamics to changing sea ice cover, including the role of individual cyclones; and ii) use these advances to identify techniques and tools that can be employed to quantify the implications of regional sea ice changes for prediction, planning, and preparedness strategies. Contributions are welcome from the sea ice, atmospheric science, forecasting, climate modeling, and social science communities, as well as individual communities, industry, and government.

2: Sea ice dynamics (I): Processes

Chairs: Chris Polashenski, Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, USA; Jenny Hutchings, Oregon State University, USA; Andrew Mahoney, University of Fairbanks Alaska, USA; Arnold Song, Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, USA

Sea ice mechanical and dynamical processes are key factors in evolving ice conditions. Export of ice from the Arctic and dynamic thickening both contribute substantially to mass balance change. Ridging and fracture processes have a significant impact on safety and efficiency of maritime operations. Drift and deformation processes are governed by the balance of forces being applied to the ice and the ability of the ice to relieve stresses through motion or deformation. Observations show that the sea ice cover has become more mobile in recent years and may simultaneously be experiencing greater deformation. Traditional continuum representations of sea ice dynamics in large scale models may not represent observed deformation of sea ice. These models have not being designed for an ice pack that has multiple dynamic regimes controlled by differing ice mechanics or anisotropic behavior. We invite submissions to a session that will encompass all processes of sea ice dynamics, including momentum transfer from air and water to the ice and mechanical and dynamical processes governing transmission and release of stress. We encourage submissions of observational findings and using any approach to modeling sea ice kinematics and mechanics. We challenge submissions to present paths toward improving predictions of ice motion and deformation through new knowledge or new model parameterization developments.

3: Sea ice dynamics (II): Observations

Chairs: Petra Heil, Australian Antarctic Division and University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia; Jennifer Hutchings, Oregon State University, Corvallis USA, Ruibo Lei, Polar Research Institute of China, Shanghai, China, Polona Itkin, Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center, Bergen, Norway

Sea-ice motion is highly dynamic due to forcing from atmosphere, ocean currents, tides or surface waves, and its interaction with glacial or continental margins. This spatio-temporal variability in ice motion induces shear and deformation. Changing climate enhances especially the atmospheric forcing on the sea ice via warming and increased cyclonicity coupled with deeper central pressure. Oceanic forcing strengthens due to deepening and warming of the mixed layer and increased wave action. Consequent sea-ice adaption includes significant thinning, reduced ice extent and concentration. Sea-ice loss provides feedback to the ice dynamics via changing sea-ice deformation and wave-ice interaction, in turn affecting the ice-thickness redistribution. To better understand these linkages and to gauge the fate of sea ice, targeted observations are urgently required. YOPP observations and the imminent MOSAiC experiment will provide extensive in situ data. The recently launched ICESat-2 and other new and existing satellite-missions will provide invaluable information to unravel sea-ice dynamics across scales and deliver process understanding to improve numerical sea-ice parameterizations. We welcome submissions from observational studies of sea-ice dynamics, ice-pack properties, and interaction with the ocean and atmosphere, including those based on remote sensing and those linked to modeling studies and numerical assimilation.

4: Sea ice thickness and roughness variability and change

Chairs: Christian Haas, York University, Canada / Alfred Wegener Institute, Germany; Stefen Hendricks, Alfred Wegener Institute, Germany; Axel Schweiger, Polar Science Center, Seattle, USA

The ice thickness and roughness distributions are some of the most important sea ice properties as they integrate over the various thermodynamic and dynamic processes experienced by the ice since its formation, and provide information about the ice’s state of development or decay. They are major climate change indicators, engineering design criteria, and measures for hazard potential of over-ice travel and marine operations. However, due to challenges of observing and modeling sea ice thickness and roughness there are relatively few studies documenting their regional and temporal variability and change, and the conditions of the ice’s growth and deformation. Here we invite contributions from modeling, remote sensing, airborne, in-situ, and under-water studies that show variations and change of the ice thickness and/or roughness distributions in the Arctic and Antarctic. These can be from Arctic and Antarctic system science, ice engineering, or other applications. If available, interpretations of the processes that led to the observed or modeled thickness or roughness distributions are highly welcome.

5: Snow on sea ice (I): Observations and modelling

Chairs: Julienne Stroeve, University of Manitoba, Canada / University College London, UK / NSIDC, USA; Torsten Geldsetzer, University of Calgary, Canada; John Yackel, University of Calgary, Canada; Vishnu Nandan, University of Victoria, Canada; Edward Blanchard-Wrigglesworth, University of Washington, USA

Snow on sea ice is a critical parameter for many studies, ranging from sea ice biology, to radar altimetry, to global climatology. Snow properties such as thickness, density, grain size, salinity and temperature vary both spatially and temporally. For macro- to hemispheric-scale studies, estimates of these properties are being pursued via remote sensing and modelling techniques. While for micro- to macro-scale studies, in situ measurements provide the highest-quality data; and provide validation for remote sensing and modelling studies. A variety of remote sensing techniques are being investigated, employing one or more sensors; some incorporating ancillary data. Modelling studies vary in level of complexity, with some integrating remote sensing data. In this session we aim to explore the efficacies and uncertainties inherent in observed and modelled snow property estimates. This session invites abstracts addressing the following questions: 1) which remote sensing and/or modelling techniques provide robust estimates of snow properties on sea ice? 2) what are the biases, uncertainties and limitations associated with remotely-sensed or modelled estimates? and 3) what is the long-term variability in snow cover properties and how will this change in the future? We invite studies based on airborne and satellite retrievals, in situ data, modeling and/or combinations.

6: Snow on ice (II): Processes and effects on sea-ice thickness

Chairs: Stefanie Arndt, Alfred Wegener Institute, Germany; Sebastian Gerland, Norwegian Polar Institute, Norway; Stefan Kern, University of Hamburg, Germany; Rob Massom, Australian Antarctic Division, Australia; Chris Polashenski, Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, USA; Melinda Webster, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, USA.

Snow on sea ice has a major impact on the properties of the underlying ice cover, as well as on the interactions between the sea ice, atmosphere and ocean – with distinctly different regimes in the Arctic and Antarctic. Improved knowledge of spatio-temporal evolution of snow’s structure, properties and depth is crucial to quantifying, modeling, and understanding the seasonal and interannual variability in sea ice mass budgets in both polar regions. The lack of wide-scale snow depth and density data with sufficient spatial and temporal resolutions contributes significantly to uncertainties in satellite-derived estimates of sea-ice concentration, thickness and snow depth. This session invites abstracts on: 1) snow processes affecting the sea ice mass budget of both hemispheres, 2) the effects of snow on remote sensing-derived sea ice thickness retrievals, and 3) remote sensing of snow thickness. Key questions include: What is the contribution of snow-related processes to the mass budgets of the Arctic and Antarctic sea-ice covers? What is the contribution of snow to current uncertainties in satellite-based retrievals of sea-ice thickness, and how can this be addressed? We invite studies based on in situ observations (including use of autonomous technologies), remote sensing, and snow properties and processes in both hemispheres.

7: Current and near future changes in seasonal/marginal ice

Chairs: Paul Wassmann, UiT The Arctic University of Norway; Pat Langhorne, University of Otago, NZ; Byongjun (Phil) Hwang, University of Huddersfield, UK; Jeremy Wilkinson, British Antarctic Survey, UK

The seasonal ice zone (SIZ) is the area of ocean that extends from the permanent ice zone to the boundary where winter sea ice extent is at a maximum. At the outer margin of the SIZ is the marginal ice zone (MIZ), which is the highly dynamic, narrow or very wide transition between the open ocean and sea ice. Depending on factors like wind direction and ocean currents, the MIZ may consist of anything from isolated, small and large ice floes drifting over a large area to a compact edge of small ice floes pressed together in front of solid pack ice. Nowhere on Earth is climate change greater than in the highly dynamic and complex SIZ/MIZ. Ecological vulnerability in the SIZ/MIZ is also great because of high production in spring and summer, and the high density of organisms (such as phyto- and zooplankton, fish, marine mammals and birds) in some parts of the year. Despite its increasing size and physical, chemical and biological significance, the SIZ/MIZ region is only investigated in a few Arctic and Antarctic regions, preventing adequate ecosystem understanding and sustainable management.  This session gathers polar sea-ice scientists and oceanographers who wish to contribute to an improved holistic understanding of the SIZ/MIZ region. With the practical disappearance of multiyear ice from the Arctic we in particular ask if Antarctica can inform us about current and near future changes underway in the Arctic SIZ/MIZ?

8: Optical properties and light propagation in Arctic and Antarctic marine systems

Chairs: Jens Ehn, University of Manitoba, Canada; Marcel Babin, Université Laval, Canada; Tao Li, Ocean University of China, Qingdoa, China

Observations of solar radiation interactions at the ocean-ice-atmosphere interface are of key importance to understand climate feedbacks such as the ice-albedo and cloud-radiative forcing feedback mechanisms. Optical measurements are also necessary for validation of remote sensing products, and provide a link between physical, biological and chemical components of the marine system. This session seeks to integrate a wide multidisciplinary scope with the common theme of incorporating light interactions with components of the Polar marine environment. We invite contributions on, but not limited to: remote sensing, climate feedbacks over a range of spatial-temporal scales, freshwater budget, coastal interactions, and bio-optics of Arctic and Antarctic systems.

9: Satellite microwave remote sensing for sea ice research

Chairs: Gunnar Spreen, University of Bremen, Germany; Walt Meier, University of Colorado, USA; Rob Massom, Australian Antarctic Division, Australia

With their daylight- and weather-independent observations, satellite microwave sensors are the backbone for monitoring sea ice in polar regions. Observations from passive microwave radiometers reach back to the 1970s and constitute one of today’s most important climate change records, e.g., documenting the drastic Arctic sea ice reduction. They are used as input to numerical weather and climate models, by ice services, and by local communities for ice edge information. Current scatterometer and radiometer (e.g., ASCAT, AMSR2, SSMIS, MWRI, SMOS and SMAP) and future missions (e.g., Copernicus CIMR) allow retrieval of essential sea-ice quantities (e.g., concentration, thin ice thickness, drift, ice type) at high temporal resolution, accuracy and consistency over time. On regional scales, SAR sensors provide observations with high spatial resolution (1–100 m) and at multiple polarizations, which allow ice type identification and high-resolution ice dynamics. The number of SAR satellites in orbit is increasing (Sentinel-1, COSMO-SkyMed, RCM). Thus, larger areas of the polar regions are covered daily and observed at different frequencies (e.g., TerraSAR-X, ALOS2). Retrieval methods need to be evaluated by extensive cal/val activities. We invite presentations about all aspects of satellite microwave remote sensing in both hemispheres, from long time series analyses to operational applications.

10: Novel technologies for observations of the sea-ice system

Chairs: Christian Katlein, Alfred Wegener Institute, Germany; Marcel Nicolaus, Alfred Wegener Institute, Germany; Marcel Babin, Université Laval, Canada; Ted Maksym, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, USA

Observing the sea-ice environment still constitutes a logistical and technological challenge due to the transient dynamics of the pack ice and the harsh polar environment. Novel technological innovations and measurement concepts can help to acquire new types of data or to extend the spatial or temporal extent of physical and biological observations in the sea-ice zone. In this session we invite contributions related to all aspects of new developments in sea-ice measurement technologies. This includes but is not limited to autonomous observatories (atmosphere ice ocean buoys), marine robotic technologies such as remotely operated and autonomous underwater vehicles (ROV & AUV), unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) as well as new measurement instrumentation for use above, inside and under the ice. Investigating new physical, biological as well as chemical sensor systems, their behaviour in polar conditions, data interfaces, deployment best-practices and calibration procedures are crucial for the longterm success of upcoming measurement technology. Contributions describing the concerted use of various different technologies to maximize the interdisciplinary scientific benefit are particularly encouraged.

11: Challenges in high-resolution sea ice modeling

Chairs: Andrew Roberts, Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA; Adrian Turner, Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA; Elizabeth Hunke, Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA; Marika Holland, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, USA

High-resolution sea ice models with horizontal discretization of 20km or less are increasingly being applied to polar prediction in Earth System Models and coupled ice-ocean configurations.  Such model integrations often transcend the intended resolution range of the applied computational physics, yet emerging science questions in coupled systems demand that sea ice models will regularly perform at even finer oceanic eddy-resolving scales of 5 km or less, scales regularly the subject of in-situ observational campaigns. This session targets research addressing physical, numerical, biogeochemical  and validation problems associated with high-fidelity sea ice prediction on daily to centennial timescales.  A broad range of topics affecting high-resolution sea ice prediction includes research that evaluates the fidelity of existing and new sea ice rheologies in continuum approximations, and contact models in discrete element models; model parameterizations and metrics used to represent sea ice morphology; methods used in models that relate scale invariance of sea ice fracture with the mechanics of floe interactions; wave-ice interaction; ice-ocean-atmosphere coupling; representation of snow and melt ponds; and tidal and thermodynamic feedbacks.  Papers are invited that identify problems in atmospheric, ocean and land components of Earth System Models that identify coupling challenges and requirements in high-resolution sea ice models.

12: Sea Ice in CMIP6 models

Chairs: Alexandra Jahn, University of Colorado, USA; Marika Holland, University of Colorado, USA; Elizabeth Hunke, Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA; François Massonnet, Université catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; Dirk Notz, MPI-M, Hamburg, Germany; Julienne Stroeve, University of Manitoba, Canada / University College London, UK / NSIDC, USA; Bruno Tremblay, McGill University, Montreal, Canada; Martin Vancoppenolle, Sorbonne Université, CNRS, Paris, France

We invite sea ice modeling contributions, in particular ones that use large-scale model simulations and address the questions formulated within the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 6 (CMIP6) – endorsed Sea-Ice Model Intercomparison Project (SIMIP). These questions include: 1) What are the physical processes that affect sea ice changes? 2) Why do model simulations differ from each other? 3) Why do model simulations differ from the observational record? 4) What can we do to reduce these differences to obtain a better understanding and achieve better projections? Topics of interest include but are not limited to, model evaluation, analyses, intercomparisons, or other sea-ice related science carried out with Earth System Models or Climate Models, or with other methods that help advance the understanding of the output from these large-scale models in relationship to the real world.

13: Sea ice, ocean and climate connections in the Northern Oceans and the Southern Oceans

Chairs: Inga J. Smith, University of Otago, NZ; François Massonnet, Université catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; Amy Solomon, University of Colorado/NOAA-ESRL, Boulder, USA; Riccardo Farneti, Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy; John Fyfe, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Victoria, Canada

Sea ice plays a critical role in Earth’s climate, through its influence on ocean circulation, heat and freshwater storage, and the Earth’s radiative balance. Sea ice is a physical barrier to the exchange of heat, mass and momentum between the atmosphere and the ocean, and is involved in important feedbacks acting on a range of time and spatial scales. As such, process studies of sea ice are essential to advance our understanding of the fundamental physical mechanisms underlying polar climate variability. This session welcomes developments from observational, modelling, and theoretical studies that aim at describing the physical origins of sea ice changes (forced or natural), in particular their regional expressions, from days to decades. Being bipolar, this session is particularly looking for integrated studies blending analyses for the two hemispheres. The use of similar methods and datasets (Earth System Model evaluation, CMIP6 analyses, inter-observational product comparison, feedback studies) to study Arctic and Antarctic sea ice are welcome.

14: Model-observation integration for enhanced understanding of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice

Chairs: Lettie Roach, National Institute for Water and Atmospheric Research / Victoria University of Wellington, NZ; Chris Horvat, Brown University, Providence, USA; Rachel Tilling, University of Leeds,UK

Both climate models and observations are essential to understand the physics of the highly-complex sea ice system. Observations can inform modelers throughout model development, suggesting new variables, refining process descriptions, constraining parameters, and evaluating model results. Similarly, modeling results motivate observations of particular variables and relevant processes. In practice, there is often a model-observation disconnect that may limit predictive skill during the current period of rapid change. The Arctic is transitioning to a previously unobserved seasonal sea ice cover, and there is low confidence in projections of future Antarctic sea ice change. Advances in remote sensing and autonomous technology facilitate more plentiful high-latitude observations, and advances in computing power allow climate model simulations incorporating more complex physical processes at higher resolution. To effectively utilize new developments, model and observational efforts must be better integrated. We invite presentations combining observations and modeling to improve our understanding of past, present, and future sea ice cover. Topics may include recommendations for new observations based on model output, work to increase the physical fidelity of models, suggestions for observationally-motivated model development, and new remote sensing tools for validation. The session will be future-oriented and aims to bridge the gap between observational and modeling communities.

15: Glacier-sea ice coupling in the Arctic and Antarctic

Chairs: Dorthe Dahl-Jensen, University of Copenhagen, Denmark

The ice streams strongly interact with the ocean and the sea ice and they play a very important role in sea level changes through ice discharge. Many ice streams have increased their velocity and thus the ice discharge during the recent years of warming in the Arctic and this increase has been connected to warming ocean temperatures. Others factors like topography under the ice streams, changing temperature and mass balance on the ice streams and surface melt water also influence the changes of ice stream ice discharge. At the front conditions like polynyas, basal melt and freeze under the ice, tides, ice mélange and sea ice and ocean heat content influence the ice stream discharge of fresh water. The aim of the session is to bring together ice dynamic and ocean researchers to bring the very diverse knowledge together and improve our understanding of the dynamics influencing the glacier-ocean-sea ice coupling especially in a warming climate.

16: Paleo-reconstruction of glacier and/or glacier-sea ice coupling

Chairs: Dorthe Dahl-Jensen, University of Copenhagen, Denmark

Knowledge on the past sea ice conditions in the Arctic is becoming more and more important as the warming climate offers promises for open sea routes and changing living conditions for the Inuit and indigenous populations. While we see a clear trend at present with a strong decline of the sea ice both in area and thickness related to warming conditions it is also clear that ocean and wind conditions as well as general cryosphere conditions play a role in the sea ice coverage.  The aim of the session is to bring together the vast sources of information of the past sea ice conditions. Sea-ice historical records and observations; reconstructions from ice-core records, deep-sea sediments can reconstruct long time records reaching thousands of years back in time that also can be compared to other proxies representing temperature, wind and ocean conditions. Shorter term observations from satellite and Reconstructions from archaeological studies and local and traditional knowledge enhances the knowledge and adds the Inuit and indigenous sea-ice knowledge.

17: Iceberg production, drift and deterioration

Chairs: Abigail Dalton, University of Ottawa, Canada; Wesley Van Wychen, University of Waterloo, Canada; Luke Copland, University of Ottawa, Canada

Rapid warming in the polar regions over the past several decades has resulted in a reduction in sea ice cover, thinning ice shelves and increased glacier ice loss through surface melt and calving of icebergs. There are currently many unanswered questions surrounding this topic, such as the factors controlling iceberg calving, how icebergs drift and deteriorate, and whether iceberg dynamics are changing in response to variable sea-ice conditions. Better understanding of these processes can provide insight into their impact on climate and ocean warming in high latitude regions. There is also a need for improved understanding on the impacts of these changes on infrastructure such as shipping routes and offshore oil platforms. This session invites presentations that investigate the lifecycle of icebergs, including their production, drift patterns and deterioration. This session is designed to bring together researchers, government and industry partners who use remote sensing, modelling and field studies to better understand the lifecycle of icebergs and reduce risks to infrastructure and the environment.

18: Interactions between runoff and sea ice

Chairs: Robie W Macdonald, Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Sydney, Canada / University of Manitoba, Canada; Zou Zou A. Kuzyk, University of Manitoba, Canada

Freshwater balance is a key control of Arctic marine systems.  On one hand, stratification controls the exchange of nutrients between surface and deeper water while, on the other hand, the surface transport of fresh water through Arctic seas promotes upwelling and mixing.  The dynamic interaction between sea-ice formation/melting and runoff is important to numerous processes including sea-ice formation, primary production, residence times of surface water, the renewal of deepwater, the formation and maintenance of polynyas, and light penetration into the surface ocean.  In this session we wish bring together the community studying freshwater sources using geochemical tracers with the community examining the physical transport of freshwater in summer and winter, and its effect on biological communities.

19: Biogeochemical processes within the ocean-sea ice-atmosphere - Part 1

Chairs: Nadja Steiner, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Sidney, Canada; Letizia Tedesco, Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki, Finland; Sebastien Moreau, Norwegian Polar Insitute, Tromsø, Norway; Klaus Meiners, Australian Antarctic Division, Kingston, Australia

Changes in the Arctic marine cryosphere have been continually outpacing projections, and Antarctic sea ice extent continues to differ from model predictions seasonally and annually. The myriad of processes and feedbacks within the sea ice-ocean system at the two poles associated with these changes are still poorly understood. Observations over the last twenty years have identified numerous biogeochemical processes occurring in the sea-ice zone which are relevant for the underlying seawater and remote water masses through effects on marine productivity and nutrient stocks. These processes can occur within sea ice itself, or involve atmosphere-sea ice-ocean exchange of biogeochemical compounds. Sea-ice biogeochemical processes also affect atmospheric composition both through direct releases and by moderating air-sea exchange of climatically active gases and aerosols. Higher trophic levels of polar ecosystems, as well as human communities, are affected by changes in sea-ice biogeochemistry through cascading ecosystem effects. Despite all these discoveries, our understanding of sea-ice zone biogeochemistry is still limited in both Arctic and Antarctic environments. Observations are sparse, and satellite remote sensing is of limited applicability. As a consequence, the representation of sea-ice zone biogeochemical processes and biota in regional and global models is extremely simple, and our confidence in understanding either the past and present importance of these processes or how they are responding and will further respond to climatic change is limited. This session calls for contributions on experimental, observational, and modelling studies that improve our mechanistic understanding of the interactions between sea ice and ocean biogeochemistry and their effect on physical and associated ecosystems. Studies are invited that will increase our conceptual knowledge on the role of temperature on brine, gas, particle, and solute transport within sea ice and between the ice-air and ice-ocean boundaries. This may include sea ice algal and microbial communities.

20: Biogeochemical processes within the ocean-sea ice-atmosphere - Part 2

Chairs: Søren Rysgaard, University of Manitoba, Canada / Aarhus University, Denmark / Greenland Institute of Natural Resources, Nuuk, Greenland; Ryan Galley, University of Manitoba, Canada; David Walker, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Cape Town, South Africa

Changes in the Arctic marine cryosphere have been continually outpacing projections, and Antarctic sea ice extent continues to differ from model predictions seasonally and annually. The myriad of processes and feedbacks within the sea ice-ocean system at the two poles associated with these changes are still poorly understood. Observations over the last twenty years have identified numerous biogeochemical processes occurring in the sea-ice zone which are relevant for the underlying seawater and remote water masses through effects on marine productivity and nutrient stocks. These processes can occur within sea ice itself, or involve atmosphere-sea ice-ocean exchange of biogeochemical compounds. Sea-ice biogeochemical processes also affect atmospheric composition both through direct releases and by moderating air-sea exchange of climatically active gases and aerosols. Higher trophic levels of polar ecosystems, as well as human communities, are affected by changes in sea-ice biogeochemistry through cascading ecosystem effects. Despite all these discoveries, our understanding of sea-ice zone biogeochemistry is still limited in both Arctic and Antarctic environments. Observations are sparse, and satellite remote sensing is of limited applicability. As a consequence, the representation of sea-ice zone biogeochemical processes and biota in regional and global models is extremely simple, and our confidence in understanding either the past and present importance of these processes or how they are responding and will further respond to climatic change is limited. This session calls for contributions on experimental, observational, and modelling studies that improve our mechanistic understanding of the interactions between sea ice and ocean biogeochemistry and their effect on physical and associated ecosystems. Studies are invited that will increase our conceptual knowledge on the role of temperature on brine, gas, particle, and solute transport within sea ice and between the ice-air and ice-ocean boundaries. This may include sea ice algal and microbial communities.

21: Biodiversity and biogeochemical cycling associated to sea ice on different spatial scales – from local to pan-Arctic

Chairs: Brandon Hassett, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromso, Norway; Rolf Gradinger, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromso, Norway

The Arctic Ocean is a patchwork of distinct seas and contiguous domains with unique hydrography and associated biology. The nexus of physical processes, water chemistry, biological sciences, and the interplay between these entities is difficult to describe in any marine system, especially at regional scales.  The patchwork of seas within the Arctic Ocean substantially challenges the tenability of accurate scientific description, which is further confounded by inaccessibility, permafrost export, and receding sea ice.  The degree to which these phenomena are experienced differs greatly across the Arctic.  Consequently, Arctic marine ecologists are experiencing and subsequently describing different Arctic systems.  Understanding these challenges and differences, we propose a session on biodiversity and biogeochemical cycling in and associated with sea ice at different spatial scales.  The aim of this session is to create a community understanding of the variability experienced within discrete seas temporally and then to juxtapose these findings with pan-Arctic observations to create an integrated understanding of biogeochemistry related to sea ice across the entire Arctic.  We invite presentations focused on mechanistic, experimental, as well as in situ field observations to create a universal view by emphasizing the spatial dimension.

22: Sea ice habitats and ecological processes across multiple scales

Chairs: Christine Michel, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Winnipeg, Canada / University of Manitoba, Canada; Jody Deming, University of Washington, Seattle, USA; Steve Ferguson, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Winnipeg, Canada / University of Manitoba, Canada; C.J. Mundy, University of Manitoba, Canada; Benjamin Lange, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Winnipeg, Canada

Understanding the role of sea ice in marine ecosystems requires a multiple scale approach, ranging from microbial processes within the sea ice brine channels to large-scale habitat features that influence productivity patterns and the distribution of fish and marine mammal species. While the biogeochemical cycling of organic matter within the sea ice and at its ocean-atmosphere interfaces is influenced by microscale processes, it also depends on regional to large-scale oceanographic, climatic and atmospheric forcings. Mesoscale patterns, through their influence on biodiversity and species distribution, also play a key role in defining sea ice-associated processes and the coupling between sea ice, pelagic, and benthic systems along a continuum of ecologically -relevant scales. This session explores the current and changing role of sea ice in polar marine ecosystems, in light of physical, biogeochemical and ecological processes and trends, from microbes to marine mammals. We welcome observational and modelling studies covering a wide range of trophic levels from various polar regions, to provide new insights into the diversity of sea ice habitats, their changing conditions, linkages to pelagic and benthic ecosystems, and the key forcings operating within the ice and at its margins and interfaces across multiple scales.

23: Sea-ice ecosystems: Genomes and phenomes of sea ice microbes

Chairs: Eric Collins, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, USA; Eeva Eronen-Rasimus, Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki, Finland; Maria Bautista, University of Calgary, Canada; Jeff Bowman, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, San Diego, USA; Jody Deming, University of Washington, Seattle, USA

High throughput DNA, RNA, and protein sequencing approaches (“-omics”) have revolutionized biology over the past decade, but there are still major gaps in our understanding of how to use these enormous datasets to predict microbial function in situ. This session invites submissions of studies utilizing -omics, modeling, and phenotypic approaches (lipids, pigments, growth rates, growth limits, metabolism, etc.) on bacteria, archaea, algae, protists, fungi, viruses, plasmids, or other mobile genetic elements from sea ice. The goal of the session is to bring together field-, laboratory- and computational-based researchers to better understand the ecology of sea ice microbes at the cellular level, and to work towards a future where phenotypes can be accurately predicted from population genotypes.

24: Cryosphere storage, transport, and transformation of legacy and emerging contaminants and oil spills

Chairs: Kathleen Munson, University of Manitoba, Canada; Liisa Jantunan, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Toronto, Canada; Ken Lee, Fisheries and Oceans, Halifax, Canada; Zhouqing Xie, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China

The cryosphere, including its glacier- and sea-ice reservoirs, serves as an important record of historical contaminant release to the environment. These frozen reservoirs modulate transport of contaminants between terrestrial, marine, and atmospheric reservoirs. Arctic glacial and sea ice melt may promote contaminant release and alter the timescales of contaminant exposure. Changing sea ice conditions also alter the susceptibility of the Arctic to oils spills due to both extraction and marine shipping. The focus of this session will be to examine the role of the cryosphere in the cycling of contaminants, including legacy and emerging contaminants and oil spills, between environmental reservoirs. We will provide a broad overview of our current understanding of contaminant cycling in the cryosphere. Studies that examine how glacial and sea ice melt impact contaminant chemistry and transport are especially welcome.

25: Sea ice change impacts on Arctic marine operations and shipping

Chairs: Lawson Brigham, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, USA; Scott Stephenson, University of Connecticut, Storrs, USA

The profound retreat of Arctic sea ice driven by anthropogenic forces provides for greater marine access throughout the Circumpolar North and potentially longer seasons of navigation.  One of the research and strategic planning challenges has been to quantify these sea ice changes and assess how they might impact polar class ships, non-polar ships, and offshore oil & gas exploration and development. One of the key motivations is to understand better the ‘lengths of the navigation season’ related to sea ice conditions and polar classed ships; for example, what are the lengths of the navigation season along Russia’s Northern Sea Route, in the Canadian Arctic, and along the coast of Alaska?  An additional motivation is to understand Arctic sea ice changes and their impacts on both destinational and trans-Arctic voyaging in the Arctic Ocean. Assessing the impacts of the new IMO Polar Code, and addressing the challenges of implementation and enforcement of the Code in a changing sea ice environment, have key implications for the Arctic states and global maritime enterprise.  The session will be open to a broad array of talks related to a changing Arctic sea ice cover and the future of Arctic marine transport systems.

26: Freshwater marine coupling in the Greater Hudson Bay Marine Region

Chairs: Jens Ehn , University of Manitoba, Canada; Lauren Candlish , University of Manitoba

The Greater Hudson Bay Marine Region comprising Hudson Bay, James Bay, Foxe Basin, Hudson Strait and extending into Ungava Bay—occupies an area of 1.3 million km2. The region experiences nearly complete sea ice cover between November and June and becomes ice-free each summer. A massive amount of freshwater enters the Marine Region from its large watershed, which covers a third of the Canadian landmass. The freshwater entering the marine system through the watershed and through the sea ice impacts the region significantly with implications on the physical system, the ecosystem and human interactions with the environment. This session is intended to build on recent momentum from projects such as the Hudson Bay System Study (BaySys) bringing together researchers, communities, government and industry partners working in the Hudson Bay marine region. This session will showcase the current and ongoing research and collaboration within the Greater Hudson Bay Marine Region. Talks are welcomed on any topic related to the marine region of Hudson Bay and James Bay including traditional knowledge, oceanography, ecology, and cumulative impacts.

27: Early sea ice explorations with ICESat-2

Chairs: Nathan Kurtz, NASA Goddard Space Flight Centre, Maryland, USA; Ron Kwok, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, USA

ICESat-2 launched in September 15. Unlike ICESat, which had a single laser beam with a 70-m footprint and took measurements at 150 m along-track intervals, ICESat-2 has three pairs of beams, each pair separated by about 3 km across-track with a pair spacing of 90 m. The spot size is 17 m with an along-track sampling interval of 0.7 m. This measurement concept is a result of the lessons learned from ICESat. The multi-beam approach is critical for estimating cross-track slope around the margins of Greenland and Antarctica enabling the calculation of elevation change on a seasonal basis.  For sea ice, the dense spatial sampling (eliminating along-track gaps) and the small footprint size are especially useful for sea surface height measurements from, often narrow, leads which are needed for sea ice freeboard and ice thickness measurements. Additionally, the three pairs of beams provide significantly better spatial coverage. The session invites early results over sea ice from ICESat-2.

28: Traditional knowledge and northern engagement in sea ice research

Chairs: Ann Lennert, UiT The Arctic University of Norway; Michelle Kamula, University of Manitoba, Canada

Inuit and northern Indigenous Peoples rely extensively on sea ice for subsistence hunting and fishing, and to travel between communities, family camps, and productive harvesting areas, such as the flow edge. For Inuit, sea ice has significant cultural importance and has been entwined in their daily lifeways in the Arctic since time immemorial. Over the last several decades, Inuit have observed changes, in real time, to sea ice conditions because of ongoing climatic and anthropogenic changes, both of which have major implications on hunting practices and safety. As such, the incorporation of Indigenous Knowledge in sea ice related research programs provides a more comprehensive understanding of changes to the Arctic and subarctic marine ecosystem. This session will provide an opportunity for those working on current and proposed research and educational programs that directly engage northern communities, Indigenous youth and elders, organizations and NGO’s, to share their findings and experiences. Presentations may include, but are not limited to, research and outreach programs with a focus on examining the ocean-sea ice-atmosphere system, climate change, and impacts on the marine and human social systems

Panel Discussion 1: The Pikialasorsuaq partnership in the North Water Polynya

A proposed International Inuit management area.

Panelists to be confirmed.Panelists to be confirmed..

Panel Discussion 2: Northern Economic Development

How climate change is increasing opportunities locally, nationally and internationally in the Arctic.

Panelists to be confirmed..

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